HYDRO POTENTIAL IN BURU ISLAND OF MALUKU PROVINCE
Hydro Potential in BuruIsland (Buru Regency and South Buru Regency) of MalukuProvince
Hydro Potential at BuruIsland
Kabupaten Buru (Buru Regency) is located between 2º25’ - 3º55’ South Latitude and 125º30’ - 127º21’ East Longitude with mainland width of 12,655.58 Km² and waters area width of 26,771.17 Km².
Kabupaten Buru consists of 6 islands, 3 islands with population: BuruIsland, AmbalauIsland and TengahIsland and 3 islands are not occupied yet: FogiIsland,OkiIsland and TomahuIsland (see Diagram 1).
Kabupaten Buru is geographically located between:
- South Latitude : 2° 25’ - 3° 55’
2. Geography and Demography
Administratively BuruIsland consists of 2 Kabupaten which are Kabupaten Buru with Namlea as its capital and consists of 5 kecamatan (district): Namlea, Waplau, Air Buaya, Waeapo, and Batabual and Kabupaten Buru Selatan with Namrole as its capital and consists of 5 kecamatan (district): Kepala medan, Leksula, Namrole, Waisama and Ambalau.
BuruIsland is an island with natural forest, protected forest, production forest and limited production forest.
As the second largest island in MalukuProvince after SeramIsland,BuruIsland has population around 139,500 people (2007 statistics burukab.co.id).
BuruIsland is a relatively developed area with various of activities conducted by the people among others farming – irrigation and food planting, livestock, fishery, plantation, forestry, industry and trading. The business keep growing with the aid from the government for regional development.
There are public infrastructures in BuruIsland such as telecommunication, PDAM, public transportation, economy infrastructure: markets and cooperatives and transportation infrastructure: roads and bridges, harbor, airport, PERTAMINA (State-Owned Oil Company), PLN (State-Owned Utility Company), hospital and hotels.
BuruIsland has tropical climate and monsoon climate which is affected by monsoon wind and related to the surrounding oceans. General characteristic of the average annual rainfall is divided into 4 classifications for 3 kecamatan as follows:
a. Northern part of BuruIsland 1400 – 1800 mm/year
Areas with elevation of more than 500 m from sea level has average rainfall of 3000 – 4000 mm/year and average annual temperature of 26ºC. (see Diagram 2)
4. Electricity Conditions
BuruIsland is supplied by Diesel Power Plant (PLTD) from Namlea, Leksula, Air Buaya and Mako systems. Labuan system is temporarily not operating due to machinery disruption. Total installed capacity at BuruIsland in year 2008 is 8768 kW with peak load of 3098 kW. There are 27 power plants:
§ 10 units of Diesel Power Plant with ready for operations capacity around 300 kW in Namlea System,
§ 4 units of Diesel Power Plant with ready for operations capacity of 450 kW in Leksula System,
§ 5 units of Diesel Power Plant with ready for operations capacity of 407 kW in Air Buaya System ,
§ 8 units of Diesel Power Plant with ready for operations capacity of 2112 kW in Mako System.
These systems are separated with one another and only supply electricity to the same system. Up to now there is no electricity transmission that integratedly connects the systems to the whole island.
Information from PLN stated that average annual growth from energy production is around 20%, where energy consumption is dominated by housing sector which is around 76%. Only 10% for commercial sector. The commercial sector uses a lot of captive power. If the use of captive power could be reduced significantly this will speed up the economic growth of the region.
The Regulation of the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources No.269 Year 2008 regarding Electricity BPP for year 2008 provided by PLN showed that for Maluku System / Sub-System the BPP for middle voltage is Rp.2,320 whereas for the low voltage is Rp.2,919 (including transmission and distribution) The figures showed that the electricity production cost for Maluku System is very high since all system use fuel. In order to decrease the production cost, a Power Plant from renewable energy sources ought to be built which relatively has very low operations cost.
5. The potential of PLTA TINA
The PLTA Tina project is located in BuruIsland, about 20 km from Namrole as the capital of Kabupaten Buru Selatan of Maluku Province. The location is at Sungai Tina (TinaRiver) as one of the largest river in the southern part watershed of BuruIsland. (see Diagram 3)
Geographically PLTA Tina is located in Kecamatan Namrole approximately at 3° 44’ South Lattitude and 126° 44’ East Longitude.
Sungai Tina’s upper reach is at Tefdula, Taglasmiten, Fatianpun and NgefuhaMountains and has watershed around 250 250 km². Average annual rainfall in the area is 2500 mm per year.
Sungai Tina runs to the south direction and empties on the southern area of BuruIsland. Most of Sungai Tina watershed is forest with mountains and bushes. There are also several plantations managed by the local people. But these areas are only around the lowland and near the beach.
PLTA Tina will be developed based on Run of River/ ROR since it relatively has a sufficiently high ROR. With ROR around 70 meter and planned debt of 20 m³/second, the installed capacity of PLTA Tina could be developed up to 12 MW at the optimum with energy production of 57 GWh/year. This energy could be distributed through a 20 kV transmission line to Namrole System which is around 16 km away.
The development of PLTA Tina will really support the increase of capacity and supply security of the power plants in BuruIsland especially in Kecamatan Namrole and its surrounding areas, moreover this will certainly support the economic growth of the region.
If PLTA Tina could be developed, PLN is expected to build a 20 kV interconnection line from PLTA Tina to Namrole System for the usage of the surrounding areas and could be extended in the future with interconnection to Namlea System (see Diagram 4).
With ROR pattern the electricity produced by PLTA Tina could be used as the bearer of base load on Namrole System and other PLTD in this system could be used as reserves that could be used at peak load or whenever necessary.
6. The potential of PLTA NIBE
PLTA Nibe is located in Kecamatan Air Buaya approximately at 3° 9’ South Latitude and 126° 36’ East Longitude. This PLTA is located on Wa Nine and Wa Nibe watersheds. The width of the watershed is around 400 km². Average rainfall in this area is around 1800 mm per year. (see Diagram 3)
PLTM Nibe is located on Sungai Nibe (NibeRiver) which upper reach is at Danau Ranu (RanuLake). The river runs to the north direction and empties at SeramSea.
The location is about 20 km from the north beach where there are a lot of small towns and villages in the area. From the area we could proceed to AirBuayaTown which is the capital of Kecamatan Air Buaya.
If the area is going to be developed as PLTA based on ROR type, with average debt of 15 m³/detik and ROR around 40 meter, it is estimated to produce electricity up to 5 MW. The energy from this PLTA could be distributed through a 20 kV transmission to the settlements around the area such as Wamlana and the surrounding Air Buaya.
7. Development Schedule
By assuming that the development plan could be run smoothly, it is estimated that the development will require one to two years time. This is excluded the time required for pre-PPA (Power Purchase Agreement) process - and electricity purchase contract with PLN which is estimated to be around 6 to 8 months (see attached table). The PPA process requires some time since it has to be in accordance with the requirements stated in the Regulation of the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources No. 001/2006 – No.002/2006 and No.004/2007 concerning the procedures on electricity purchase for public interest.